Top-level domains (TLDs) are the domain extensions on the right-hand side of domains. There are different categories of TLDs, including:
- Generic TLDs (gTLDs), such as .com, .info, and .net, which do not have a country or geographic designation and were among the first TLDs in existence. gTLDs can also hint to or be reserved for specific organizations such as .edu (i.e., education service providers) or .gov (i.e., government organizations).
- New Generic TLDs (ngTLDs), such as .jaguar and .jobs, also do not intend to refer to a particular country or region and are typically themed or sponsored by a given entity (i.e., .jaguar is sponsored by Jaguar Land Rover Ltd). ngTLDs are being introduced over time to meet new market needs and account for the difficulty of registering certain domain names using popular gTLDs and often unavailable.
- Country TLDs (ccTLDs), such as .fr, .de, .be, etc. which have a specific country or geographic designation. ccTLDs are often used for domains in a particular country or region by registrants located there. However, registrants based in another country can still typically use a given ccTLD.
- Country code second-level domain (ccSLDs), such as .org.au, .qld.gov.au, and .wales.nhs.uk, can be considered categories of a given ccTLD to be used for a variety of purposes for domains with a connection to a country. For example, .co.uk is intended for commercial ends in the United Kingdom, while .ac.uk is meant for use by academic organizations in the country.